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Many information can be found in aluminum-manual, which is being completely revised and will soon be available. In the meantime, please use our glossary for useful word explanations.


Process by which deformed grains can reduce their stored energy by the removal or rearrangement of defects in their crystal structure.

Recovery heat treatment

Applied in cold-formed semi-finished products to wholly or partly eliminate work hardening.


Thermal process by which deformed grains are replaced by a new set of defects-free grains that nucleate and grow until the original grains have been entirely consumed.

Red mud

Waste product of aluminium production according to the Bayer procedure; is formed by the process of refining bauxite to produce alumina.

Rolling ingots

Rectangular metal block used in the roll-forming process.